DNA is used to identify and confirm the species of origin of items of evidence suspected of being involved in illegal commercialization or illegal trade as defined by the CITES convention or by the Local and other international bodies. Conservation efforts worldwide have a serious threat in form of illegal poaching of animals, destruction of farm lands, trading of rare and endangered species across different geographic regions. These lead to habitat destruction and leads to secondary threats like economic security and public health.
DNA barcoding can be utilized to identify the species in picture from a very minute sample (hair, blood, skin snip, egg, tissue etc.) obtained during investigations. Ascertaining these will help locate the origin of the trade and also assist in understanding the biodiversity of the species.
Rare plant materials in form of lumber or wood, flowers, seeds etc can also be identified to its origin and assist the authorities to protect the species in its natural environment and stop its dispersal to other habitats around the world.